Almondia – Bautipps Die Bauherrenberatung

Please note: distance area calculation!

Anyone who builds must adhere to numerous rules and specifications, because even on their own property , you are far from allowed to do what you want. Rules on required distances to other buildings and property boundaries are particularly important.

As the name suggests, spacers secure an undeveloped space between two buildings or towards different boundary lines. The main reasons for this are fire protection, but also ensuring a certain quality of living through sufficient lighting and ventilation. However, you should by no means only understand these requirements as a restriction, but above all recognize the positive side of them: If your neighbor is planning to put up a three meter high wall directly on the property line, you can assume that this is not a permissible project. In any case, you should ensure the necessary certainty by calculating the distance area in good time.

We have created a house construction checklist for you for all questions relating to house construction and land!

the essentials in brief

  • The minimum distance to be maintained corresponds to the height of the building multiplied by a value between 0.2 and 1 – depending on the federal state. It is also crucial whether the property is in the core area or on the edge of a municipality.
  • Spacers always extend across the full width of a facade. However, special components such as balconies or bay windows do not have to be charged extra.
  • Despite the distance regulation, in most federal states certain, mostly smaller buildings, such as garages or garden sheds, can also be erected on areas that are otherwise kept free

How do you calculate the distance areas?

Basically, you calculate the required clearance area by multiplying the height of the exterior walls (H) by a factor between 0.2 and 1. One third of the height of roof surfaces up to an inclination of 70° (complete with an inclination of more than 70°) is added to this height H. Regardless of these specifications, a minimum distance of 2.5 to 3 meters applies. However, since in Germany the federal states determine the respective building regulations, the distance area regulations in the respective state building regulations also differ.

The model building regulations (MBO) contain the following specifications with regard to spacing:

building areaSpacer according to MBOminimum distance
Core areas, residential and mixed areas0.4H3 m
commercial and industrial areas0.2H3 m
spacers

Formula distance area calculation

Multiply the building height by the factor (F) specified in the relevant state building code. The building height consists of the height to the roof (H) and the height of the roof itself (HD) . Depending on the roof pitch (DN) , the roof height is only partially taken into account and multiplied by the factor (FD) . The result is the depth of the clearance surface (TA) .
So the formula for calculating the distance area is: TA = F * (H + FD * HD)

Abstandsflächen Berechnen

Berechnen Sie jetzt die erforderliche Tiefe Ihrer Abstandsfläche

Von Ihrer Landesbauordnung angegebener Faktor
Gebäudehöhe bis zum Dach
Faktor je nach Dachneigung (von der jeweiligen Landesbauordnung vorgegeben)
Höhe des Daches selbst
Diese Tiefe der Abstandsfläche müssen Sie beachten

Which you can ignore in distance area calculation

How far does a house have to be from the property line? Example Bavaria: In the Bavarian countryside, the building height is multiplied by a factor of 1. A 5.2 meter high house with a 2.4 meter high roof pitched at 45 degrees must have the following distance to the neighboring house: TA = 1 * (5.2m + 1/3 * 2.4m) = 6.0m The distance area is therefore at least 6 meters. Since it is allowed to build more densely in the village center, the factor is reduced to 0.5 here. A distance of at least 3 meters must be kept to the neighboring property.

Very few houses have a completely vertical facade, but have various projections and recesses. In order not to make the calculation of the distance areas too complicated, however, special components such as bay windows or balconies do not have to be calculated separately. The prerequisite for this is that they do not protrude more than 1.5 meters from the structure. In addition, they may extend over a maximum of one third of the facade surface. For the sake of simplicity, thermal insulation composite systems also fall under this exception rule: up to a thickness of 20 to 25 centimetres, they are simply ignored when calculating the spacing areas. This prevents subsequent insulation measures from pushing the spacers below the minimum required. Nevertheless, builders whose houses are built particularly close to the neighboring property may be restricted in their choice of facade insulation due to the distance area regulation.

Our free prefabricated house calculator shows you the expected costs of your construction project.

When you can still build on clearance areas

One might think that clearance areas should logically be kept free of any development. But there are exceptions here too: Certain, mostly smaller buildings, such as garages or garden sheds, can also be built on clearance areas in most federal states. In addition, they themselves do not have any spacing areas to be observed. This applies at least when those small structures do not exceed certain maximum dimensions.

In North Rhine-Westphalia, buildings in clearance areas can have an average wall height of no more than three meters and a maximum length of nine meters.

Development plan beats building regulations

How far does a house have to be from the property line?

Example Thuringia: A bungalow with a height of 3.4 meters and an additional roof height of 1.5 meters is to be built on a plot of land. Since the roof angle is less than 70 degrees, the following calculation can be made:
TA = 0.4 * (3.40m + 1/3 * 1.50m) = 1.56m According to this calculation, the distance to the neighboring property should therefore be 1.56 meters. However, in Thuringia there is a minimum distance of 3 meters, which is why the bungalow must be built at least 3 meters from the property line.

The stipulations in the specific development plans are higher than the general specifications in the respective state building codes. This means that if the development plan allows border development, the regulations on clearance areas are no longer applicable. This is the case, for example, with closed building lines , which are often defined in urban cores. All new buildings must be built directly on these lines in order to maintain a uniform urban appearance.

Where the spacers need to be

The clearance areas must be on the property itself and must not be measured from building to building. In exceptional cases, they may also be on the neighbor’s property, of course only with his consent. But before you agree to such a request from your friendly neighbor, consider that this also means that you will no longer be allowed to build on the affected area in the future. There are also exceptions if the property borders on public squares, green spaces or streets. This is because the space between your own adjoining building and the center of the public area may extend here.

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